Understanding Girder and Its Type

Tim Belajar Beton

Last Updated :

February 2, 2024
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Photo Source: freepikcom

A girder is a beam made of concrete or steel placed within two supports in the form of a pear or abutment. In simple terms, a girder, also known as a support beam which is used in construction as the main horizontal support of a structure that supports other smaller beams.

Therefore, girders are often used in overpass constructions, highways, fly over, and other long-span constructions. In bridge construction, the main function of a girder is to distribute the load from the upper structure to the lower structure, that is, the abutment, so that it can be damped and also avoid crossing of loads or forces.

What is the Girder Beam System?

Based on the design, the beam girder can be differentiated into two, that is, precast girders and and on site girder. An on-site girder is a concrete girder which is cast within the project field or site. Meanwhile, a precast girder is a girder that has been pre-casted or produced at a factory and then transported to the project field or site where the girders will be used.

Precast girder systems commonly can be differentiated into two, that is, segmental and nonsegmental (monolith). A segmental girder is a beam made of several segments joined as one single complete beam using a pre-stress post-tension system..

The function is to speed up the beam construction within a project where the handling process is possible for the monolith. Additionally, it may also eliminate the task of assembling segments which requires equipment, space, and assembly work supervision in the project field or site.

A non-segmental girder is a beam made of several segments joined as one single complete beam using a pre tension system. The goal is to ease the beam handling process from its factory to the project field/site where it is not possible for monolith distribution.

Moreover, non-segmental girders are also able to produce beams by adjusting the capacity and capability of facilities and lifting equipment at the factory.

Types of Girder

Girder has a variety of shapes. Generally, the girder is shaped in the form of an I profile, but there are also girders in the form of a U, T, semi-T, or even a box girder profile. Each of these types can be selected according to the construction requirements and objectives.

Here are the difference:

  1. I-Girder
    As its name, I-girder is in the form of the letter I and is also known as PCI Girder. PCI girder is one of the most commonly used girder precast in construction. This type of girder is made of composite or non-composite materials and is the most used in bridge construction in Indonesia.
  2. U-Girder
    The next type of girder is the U beam or U-Girder also known as PCU Girder. Pcu Girder is widely used in bridge construction within a narrow site/field. From its shape, the U-Girder was able to be used to build an elongated bridge.
  3. T-Girder
    On long-span but not too wide bridges, such as bridges for pedestrians and cyclists, T-Girder is the most frequently used type of girder. The T-shaped beam in this bridge is made of composite steel, reinforced concrete or pre-tension concrete.
  4. Box Girder
    For the construction of a long-span flyover bridge, box girder is the commonly used option. A box girder is steel concrete with the shape of a box or trapezoid. Commonly, this type of girder is used in the construction of curved bridges.

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